What is masonry?
Masonry is the building
of structures from
individual units laid in
and bound together by
mortar. The common
materials of masonry
construction are brick,
stone such as marble,
block, glass block, and
tile. Masonry is
generally a highly
durable form of
the materials used, the
quality of the mortar and
workmanship, and the
pattern the units are put
in can strongly affect the
durability of the overall
|RL Sanborn Masonry 2014
R L Sanborn Masonry, located in Portland Maine, is Cumberland County's trusted
source for wood stove Installation, Fireplace Insert installations, Pellet Stove
Installs, dedicated masonry Chimney Installation, existing chimney conversion for
wood stove use,stainless steel chimney liner installation and custom hearths for
R L Sanborn Masonry
Portland Maine’s alternative heating source services company.
Providing quality services to the Cumberland County Maine.
Our Tested results and affordable rates make us the right choice for wood stove Installation,
Fireplace Insert installations, Pellet Stove Installs and dedicated masonry Chimney Installation.
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With 25 years in the trade we continue to provide our quality services. We are
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Wood smoke is waste. Any smoke that escapes from your wood stove unburned is wasted fuel that will stick in your chimney as creosote or be released as air pollution. An
old or poorly installed wood stove can result in higher maintenance costs, greater risk of smoke in your home, and more environmental pollution. It could cause a house fire.
Properly installed EPA certified wood stove and fireplace inserts offer many benefits. They burn wood efficiently, more safely, and heat your home effectively with much less
smoke. With EPA certified wood stoves and fireplace inserts, you should see only a thin wisp of steam coming from your chimney.
Installation Affects Efficiency
EPA recommends that your certified wood stove or fireplace insert be professionally installed by a certified technician to insure its safety and proper performance. The safety
of your home and family depends on fully understanding and carrying out the critical manufacturer and building code requirements that include:
Proper clearances between the stove and venting system and combustible materials.
Proper protection of combustible floors.
Proper assembly of appliance and venting components.
Errors in installation (by a non-professional) may not be visible, and problems may not be apparent for a considerable length of time—and then only by a resulting home fire.
Furthermore, experienced professionals can properly size and place equipment for best heat distribution. The venting system (or chimney), in particular, is a critical area that
requires professional involvement. This is the “engine” that drives the whole burning process—or causes it to perform poorly or fail. Professional decisions about the venting
system to ensure adequate draft include:
Proper sizing (particularly avoiding oversized flues).
Proper height (often taller than minimum code requirements).
Proper location (interior of the house when possible) or protection from extreme cold.
Proper configuration (avoiding excessive horizontal runs and system turns in direction).
An EPA certified wood burning stove that is sized and placed properly with a venting system that delivers adequate draft will reduce wood consumption, produce more usable
heat, and reduce maintenance from inefficient fires. To learn more about chimneys and venting systems, visit The Wood Heat Organization.
Using Your Wood Stove Safely
You should never smell smoke in your home; smoke is unhealthy to breathe. The odor of smoke in your home indicates that your wood stove is not operating efficiently or
safely. An EPA certified wood stove burns wood efficiently, releasing 60 to 80% less smoke up the chimney.
Safety Begins at Installation
Using a wood stove safely starts with proper installation. EPA recommends using a certified professional installer as the best way to ensure correct, safe installation. A
properly installed wood stove always has a vent to the exterior.
Because an EPA certified wood stove burns more efficiently than older non-certified models, much less creosote builds up in the chimney. Creosote is a combustible residue
formed by wood gases that are not completely burned. Too much creosote can lead to a chimney fire. In 1998, there were 18,300 residential fires in the United States
originating in chimneys, fireplaces, and solid fuel appliances, according to the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission. These fires resulted in 160 personal
injuries, 40 deaths, and $158 million in property damage.
Safety Includes Yearly Maintenance
EPA and fire officials recommend having your wood stove, chimney, and vents professionally inspected and cleaned each year to keep them in safe working order. The
Chimney Safety Institute of America provides a list of certified chimney sweeps, searchable by state. In addition, Chimneys.com provides useful tips for wood stove operation
Safe Wood Burning Practices
Once your EPA certified wood stove is properly installed, follow these guidelines for safe operation:
Keep all flammable household items—drapes, furniture, newspapers, and books—far away from your wood stove.
Start fires only with clean newspaper and dry kindling. Never start a fire with gasoline, kerosene, charcoal starter, or a propane torch.
Do not burn wet or green (unseasoned) logs.
Do not use logs made from wax and sawdust in your wood stove or fireplace insert – they are made for open hearth fireplaces. If you use manufactured logs, choose those
made from 100 percent compressed sawdust.
Build small, hot fires. A smoldering fire is not a safe or efficient fire.
Keep the doors of your wood stove closed unless loading or stoking the live fire.
Regularly remove ashes from your wood stove into a metal container with a cover. Store the container of ashes outdoors on a cement or brick slab (not on a wood deck or
Keep a fire extinguisher handy.
RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR THE INSTALLATION
OF WOOD BURNING STOVES
This guide has been prepared to inform the people of the State of Maine of the recommended standards for the installation of wood burning stoves. These standards have
been approved by the Office of State Fire Marshal in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association’s standards.
These standards cover all wood burning appliances with the exception of on-site constructed masonry stoves and fireplaces; stoves with water jackets or coils; and wood
fueled central heating systems utilizing pipes, ducts, or similar distribution systems. Stoves for use in mobile homes should be specifically listed for such use. All listed wood
burning stoves should be installed according to the manufacturers’ recommendations.
APPROVED: Acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction.
ASBESTOS MILLBOARD: A soft insulating board made with compressed asbestos fibers capable of being cut with knife or hand saw.
CHIMNEY: A vertical shaft enclosing one or more flues for conveying smoke, hot air, and other gases to the outside atmosphere.
CHIMNEY CONNECTION: The conduit connecting the wood stove with the vertical flue (generally stovepipe).
CIRCULATING STOVE: A wood burning appliance surrounded by an outer jacket with openings at the top and bottom so that room air passes between the stove and the
COMBUSTIBLE WALL: Any wall section that has the potential to burn. Only solid masonry or corrugated steel walls are considered non-combustible. Merely covering a wood
studded wall with a non-combustible material does not constitute a non-combustible wall.
COOK STOVE: A wood burning stove used for cooking which includes an oven and surface heating areas. DRAFT: The natural force which conducts smoke, hot air, and
other gases to the outside atmosphere.
FIRE RESISTANT INSULATING BOARD: Listed or approved materials suitable for protecting combustible surfaces.
FLUE: A tube, pipe, or shaft for passage of smoke, hot air, gas, etc., as in a chimney.
FLUE COLLAR: That portion of an appliance designed for attachment to the chimney connector.
FLUE LINER: A material which resists high temperatures and is designed specifically for lining chimneys or connectors.
LISTED: Equipment or materials which meet nationally recognized standards or tests which determine suitability of usage in a specified manner.
RADIANT STOVE: Any wood burning appliance not designed as a circulating stove.
THIMBLE: Liner for the passageway where the chimney connector enters the chimney flue.
WOOD BURNING APPLIANCE: Any free-standing unit which utilizes wood as a fuel to produce heat. This includes stoves installed into fireplace openings
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Clearances from wood burning stoves
a. To walls and ceilings
b. To floors
II. Chimney connectors
a. Clearances from connectors
a. Chimney draft
b. Multiple connections
c. Listed pre-fabricated metal chimneys
IV. Organizations governing the installation of wood burning equipment
I. CLEARANCES FROM WOOD BURNING STOVES
Stoves must be provided with adequate clearances from combustible materials.
The minimum clearances needed for safety are specified in National Fire
Protection Association Standard # 211, Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents and
Solid Fuel Burning Appliances, 2003 Edition.
a. Clearances to Walls and Ceilings
Clearances indicated in Table 1 (below) are the minimum clearances
from wood burning stoves to unprotected combustible wall and ceiling
surfaces.Install According to Manufacturers Recommendations.
Guidelines and Details
1. Spacers and ties shall be of noncombustible material. No spacers or ties shall be directly behind appliance or conductor.
2. With all clearance reduction systems using a ventilated air space, adequate air circulation shall be provided as described in section 9-6.2.4 of NFPA # 211. There shall be a
least 1 in. between the clearance reduction system and combustible walls and ceilings for clearance reduction systems using a ventilated air space.
3. Mineral wool batts (blanket or board) shall have a minimum density of 8 lb/ft_ and have a minimum melting point of 1500°F (816ºC).
4. Insulation material used as part of clearance reduction system shall have a thermal conductivity of 1.0 (Btu-in.)/(ft_-hr-ºF) or less. Insulation board shall be formed of
5. If a single-wall connector passes through a masonry wall used as a wall shield, there shall be at least _ in. (13mm) of open, ventilated air space between the connector
and the masonry.
6. There shall be at least 1 in. (25.4 mm) between the appliance and the protector. In no case shall the clearance between the appliance and the wall surface be reduced
below that allowed in this table.
7. Clearances in front of the loading door or ash removal door, or both, of the appliance shall not be reduced from those in Section 9-5, NFPA 211.
8. All clearances and thickness are minimums; larger clearances and thickness shall be permitted.
9. To calculate the minimum allowable clearance, the following formula can be used:
Cr = Cn x [1 – (R/100]. Cr is the minimum allowable clearance, Cn is the required clearance with no protection, and R is the maximum allowable reduction inclearance.
Clearances To Floors
Residential-type solid fuel-burning appliances that are tested and listed
by a recognized testing laboratory for installation on floors constructed of combustible materials shall be placed on floors in accordance with the requirements of the listing
and conditions of approval. Such appliances that are not listed by a recognized testing laboratory shall be provided with floor protection in accordance with the provisions of 9-
5.1.2 or 9-5.1.3 of NFPA # 21 1.
Exception: Residential-type solid fuel-burning appliances shall be permitted to be placed without floor protection in any one of the following manners:
(a) On concrete bases adequately supported on compacted soil; crushed Rock, or gravel
(b) On concrete slabs or masonry arches that do not have combustible materials attached to the underside.
(c) On approved assemblies constructed of only noncombustible materials and having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours, with floors constructed of
(d) On properly stabilized ground that can support the load of the Appliance
Any floor assembly, slab, or arch shall extend not less than 18 in. (457 mm) beyond the appliance on all sides.
See Table Below for Standard Floor Clearances:
FOR LISTED AND UNLISTED APPLIANCES
2 – 6 inches
Combustible floor protection by 4 inches of hollow masonry, laid to provide circulation through the masonry layer, covered by 24-guage sheet metal.
Over 6 inches
Combustible floor protected by 2 inch thick masonry, placed overa sheet of 24-gauge sheet metal.
Listed fire-resistant insulating board can be installed according to the manufacturer’s recommendation
II. CHIMNEY CONNECTORS
A chimney connector links a stove to the chimney flue. Chimney connectors
should be made from steel of minimum 24 gage thickness. Lower gage numbers
indicate thicker stovepipe.
a. Clearances from Connectors
The clearance from a chimney connector to a combustible material should be not less than three times the diameter of the connector.
Where the combustible material is protected, the clearance may be reduced to that indicated in Figure 1.
There are three methods for passing a chimney connector through a combustible wall. Figures 2, 3, & 4 illustrate these methods. In Figure 2 sheet metal or metal lathe and
plaster finish may be used. When installing as illustrated in Figures 2 & 3, the distance from the connector to combustible materials must be equal to three times the
diameter of the connector.
Try to avoid passing a connector pipe through an interior wall. If this must be done, use a ventilating thimble. The thimble diameter must be at least 12 inches larger than that
of the stovepipe, thus giving at least 6 inches of metal-lined, ventilated clearance. If you do not use a thimble, the clearance must be three times the pipe diameter. A 6 inch
pipe would need a 42 inch diameter hole cut through a combustible wall.
Listed solid fuel pre-fabricated metal chimneys can also be used to pass through a combustible wall when installed according to manufacturers’ recommendations.
b. Connector Pipe Installation
Keep the connector pipe as short as possible. It should be no longer than 75% of the vertical chimney height above the thimble where the connector pipe enters the chimney.
The stovepipe should be straight as well as short. Use no more than two right-angle bends in the stovepipe installation. Additional bends cause soot and creosote to collect
in the stovepipe or chimney, block flue gas flow, and increase the danger of fire.
The connector pipe’s horizontal runs should rise _” for each foot of pipe, with the highest point being at the thimble.
When joining the pipe, overlap the joints at least two inches, with the crimped end pointing down to prevent creosote drips or leaks. Secure each joint with three sheet metal
screws. A fireproof sealant may be used in addition.
All connector pipe joints should fit snugly, including connections with the stove and thimble. The connector pipe must not stick into the chimney flue itself because this would
hamper the draft.
Connector pipe should not pass through ceilings. Factory built, listed, all-flue chimneys should be utilized when passing through ceilings. Follow manufacturers’ installation
instructions for these chimneys.
Connector pipe should not pass through closets. A closet fire could smolder and spread undiscovered.
The condition of a chimney should always be carefully evaluated before considering the installation of a wood-burning appliance. Beware of cracks, deteriorated mortar, and
unsealed openings in any chimney before attaching a wood burning unit to it.
a. Chimney Draft
For sufficient draft a chimney should extend at least two feet higher than any portion of the building within ten feet horizontally from it (See Figure 5). The flue area should not
be smaller than the largest connector pipe plus 50% of the additional area of a second connector entering the same flue.
b. Multiple Connections
More than one wood burning appliance should not be connected to a common flue. A chimney connector should not be connected to a flue serving a fireplace or an oil
furnace. They should have their own individual flues.
One reason for this is that the sparks can enter the house through a fireplace opening serving a woodstove elsewhere along the line. Both a fireplace opening and an oil
furnace’s barometric damper will furnish large quantities of air to their flues. In the event of a chimney fire, this will hamper any attempts to extinguish the fire by restricting
airflow to the flue. Using a wood-burning stove on a flue serving an oil furnace may also reduce the efficiency of the oil furnace, due to the change in draft characteristics of the
flue. Multiple connections sometimes result in insufficient draft. If two or more stoves are connected to the same chimney flue, despite the recommendations against doing
so, the connectors must enter the chimney at different elevations.
c. Listed Solid Fuel Pre-Fabricated Metal Chimneys
The use of pre-fabricated metal chimneys listed for installation with solid fuel heaters (not furnaces) are within the guidelines of the State Standard. Care should be taken,
however, with the use of such chimneys to avoid creosote accumulation and the associated potential danger of a chimney fire. Air-controlled wood burning appliances should
be operated in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions to reduce the potential for creosote build up. Pre-fabricated metal chimneys can break down under the intense
heat of a chimney fire, resulting in possible structural fire damage. They should always be installed in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations.
IV. ORGANIZATIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION OF WOOD
Certain Maine communities have ordinances governing the installation of wood burning equipment. Always check with your local Fire Department or Building Inspector before
attempting installation. It is also important to consult with your insurance company regarding any restrictions they may have on wood burning appliance installation. All
installations in public buildings must meet standards set by the Office of State Fire Marshal.
The wood burning appliances listed below are not covered by this recommended standard. For information on their installation, refer to the appropriate agency.
Site Built Masonry Flues and Fireplaces Consult With:Office of State Fire Marshal
Wood Fueled Furnaces or Boilers
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